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Friday, July 27, 2012

Section 3 Reading Comprehension (RC)

RC ini yg sering kali tidak terjawab semua oleh peserta tes. Sebagian besar peserta tes menjawab soal no 41 sd 50 asal2an dikarenakan kekurangan waktu ditambah lagi otak sudah terasa diperas2 karena RC merupakan section terakhir dari tes TOEFL. Bahkan ada peserta menjawab 50% dari jumlah soal tampa membaca passage nya lagi hehehe bagaimakmana mo dapet score yg diharapkan klo cara mengerjakannya sperti ini?
Sebelum penulis menjelaskan seluk beluk RC, mari kita analisa dulu RC ini. Si pembuat soal tentunya sudah mengukur dengan teliti kemampuan seorang peserta dalam menjawab semua soal. Artinya bahwa klo rekan2 sudah ahli dalam bahasa Inggris, bisa menjawab 50 soal dalam waktu 55 menit. Hal ini bisa mungkin klo kita menjawabnya dengan menggunakan trik, skill ato apalah namanya. Yang jelas 50 soal bisa dijawab oleh seseorang dalam waktu 55 menit saja.Soal biasanya terdiri dari 5 sd 6 passage dan masing2 passage bervariasi jumlah pertanyaannya, sehingga total pertanyaan untuk semua artikel itu berjumlah 50 buah.
Timbul pertanyaan apa iya? Membaca passage nya saja sudah memerlukan waktu yang lama.... apalagi untuk menjawabnya? Sebenarnya semua pertanyaan bisa disiasati cara menjawabnya demi menghemat waktu, dan sangat bergantung pada kemampuan dasar bahasa inggris dan latar belakang ilmu si peserta tes. Seseorang yang hobby membaca akan jauh leih mudah memahami passage dibandingkan yang jarang sekali membaca.
Umumnya hampir semua pertanyaan di Section 3 RC ini bisa dijawab dengan membaca soalnya dulu, kemudian mencari jawaban yang diperlukan dalam passage. Tetapi ada juga pertanyaan yang memang memerlukan detail jawaban seperti menanyakan tentang misal "what's the passage about?" Disini kita memang perlu membaca agak lebih teliti tetapi itu semua bisa disiasati dan akan dijelaskan pada artikel2 berikutnya.
Contoh soal RC dan akan dibahas secara umum. Secara detailnya, penulis akan membahasnnya satu persatu di artikel2 berikutnya :)


The technology of the North American colonies
did not differ strikingly from that of Europe, but
in one respect, the colonists enjoyed a great
advantage. Especially by comparison with Britain,
Americans had a wonderfully plentiful supply of
wood. (Paragraph 1)

The first colonists did not, as many people
imagine, find an entire continent covered by a
climax forest. Even along the Atlantic seaboard,
the forest was broken at many points. Nevertheless,
all sorts of fine trees abounded, and through
the early colonial period, those who pushed
westward encountered new forests. By the end
of the colonial era, the price of wood had risen
slightly in eastern cities, but wood was still
extremely abundant. (Paragraph 2)

The availability of wood brought advantages
that have seldom been appreciated. Wood was a
foundation of the economy. Houses and all
manner of buildings were made of wood to a
degree unknown in Britain. Secondly, wood was
used as fuel for heating and cooking. Thirdly, it
was used as the source of important industrial
compounds, such as potash, an industrial alkali;
charcoal, a component of gunpowder; and
tannic acid, used for tanning leather. (Paragraph 3)

The supply of wood conferred advantages
but had some negative aspects as well. Iron at
that time was produced by heating iron ore with
charcoal. Because Britain was so stripped of
trees, she was unable to exploit her rich iron
mines. But the American colonies had both iron
ore and wood; iron production was encouraged
and became successful. However, when Britain
developed coke smelting, the Colonies did not
follow suit because they had plenty of wood and
besides, charcoal iron was stronger than coke
iron. Coke smelting led to technologic innovations
and was linked to the emergence of the
Industrial Revolution. In the early nineteenth
century, the former colonies lagged behind
Britain in industrial development because their
supply of wood led them to cling to charcoal
iron. (Paragraph 4)


1. What does the passage mainly discuss?
(A) The advantages of using wood in the
colonies
(B) The effects of an abundance of wood
on the colonies
(C) The roots of the Industrial Revolution
(D) The difference between charcoal iron
and coke iron

Dalam menjawab soal no 1 ini, kita tidak perlu membaca keseluruhan passage. Baca saja kalimat pertama masing2 paragraph. Hal pertama yg harus diperhatikan untuk jenis soal yg menanyakan topik adalah apakah yg ditanyakan topik passage atau masing2 topik paragraphnya? Soal diatas menanyakan topik passage bearti kita harus mencari jawaban yg mengcover semua paragraph yg ada di passage tersebut. Dalam hal ini jawaban yg benar adalah B karena passage tersebut membahas tentang the plentiful supply of wood in the colonies and the advantages and disadvantages this involved.Jawaban A tidak benar karena cuma advantages saja sedangkan passage juga membahas tentang disadvantages (paragraph 4), jawaban C salah karena fokusnya Industrial Revolution. Jawaban D salah karena fokusnya perbedaan antara charcoal iron dengan coke iron. :)

2. The word strikingly in the first paragraph is
closest in meaning to
(A) realistically.
(B) dramatically.
(C) completely.
(D) immediately.

Inilah gunanya membaca soal dulu baru mengacu ke passage. Soal jenis diatas menanyakan tentang vocabulary jadi fokus saja pada kalimat yg mengandung kata yg ditanyakan. Dalam soal ini yg ditanyakan adalah kata strikingly, kalimat yg mengandung kata tersebut adalah The technology of the North American colonies did not differ strikingly from that of Europe, but in one respect, the colonists enjoyed a great advantage. Dari konteks diatas, kata strikingly mendekati makna dramatically. Detail mengenai bagaimana kita bisa memgetahui makna kata akan dibahas diartikel2 berikutnya. Makna kata yg tepat hanya bisa didapat dari kalimat yg menggunakan kata tersebut, Guessing Meaning from Contacts.

3. Which of the following is a common
assumption about the forests of North
America during the colonial period?
(A) They contained only a few types of trees.
(B) They existed only along the Atlantic
seaboard.
(C) They had little or no economic value.
(D) They covered the entire continent.

Soal diatas kata kuncinya adalah common assumption, jadi kita scan dulu untuk mendapatkan kalimat yg mengandung makna tersebut baru kemudian menjawabnya. Dari kalimat pertama paraghraph kedua "The first colonists did not, as many people imaginefind an entire continent covered by a climax forest.” ini kita bisa menentukan jawaban yg benar. Jawaban yg benar tentunya D. Kiat ini juga akan dibahas di artikel-artikel berikutnya so please keep visiting this simple blog bothers and sisters :)

4. According to the passage, by the end of the
colonial period, the price of wood in
eastern cities
(A) rose quickly because wood was
becoming so scarce.
(B) was much higher than it was in
Britain.
(C) was slightly higher than in previous
years.
(D) decreased rapidly because of lower
demand for wood.

Soal diatas kata kuncinya price of wood, scan kalimat yg mengandung makna tersebut dan didapatlah  “By the end of the colonial era, the price of wood had risen slightly in eastern cities . . .” kalimat terakhir paragraph 2. Baru tentukan jawaban yg benar, dan jawabannya adalah CSlightly higher = had risen slightly :) Kiatnya tentu akan dibahas pada artikel2 berikutnya juga hehehehe

5. What can be inferred about houses in
Britain during the period written about in
the passage?
(A) They were more expensive than
American houses.
(B) They were generally built with
imported materials.
(C) They were typically smaller than
homes in North America.
(D) They were usually built from materials
other than wood

Soal ini kata kuncinya houses, jadi scan kalimat yg mengandung kata atau makna kata tersebut. Didapatlah "Houses and all manner of buildings were made of wood to a degree unknown in Britain." Jadi jawabannya D. :)

6. Why does the author mention gunpowder
in paragraph 3?
(A) To illustrate the negative aspects of
some industrial processes
(B) To give an example of a product made
with wood compounds
(C) To remind readers that the colonial era
ended in warfare
(D) To suggest that wood was not the only
important product of the colonies

Soal ini kata kuncinya gunpowder dan paragraph 3, jadi langsung saja ke paragraph 3 dan cari kalimat yg mrngandung kata tersebut. Didapatlah kalimat "wood was the source of industrial compounds, and charcoal is given as an example. Charcoal is a component of gunpowder." Jadi jawabannya B. :)

7. The phrase follow suit in paragraph 4
means
(A) do the same thing.
(B) make an attempt.
(C) have the opportunity.
(D) take a risk.

Dalam menjawab soal seperti ini, langsung saja baca paragraph yg dimaksud. Soal diatas tentang paragraph 4, jadi langsung saja ke paragraph 4 dan baca dengan teliti kalimat yg ada kata follow suit nya. However, when Britain developed coke smelting, the Colonies did not follow suit because they had plenty of wood and besides, charcoal iron was stronger than coke iron. Kalimat ini mengandung makna bertentangan dengan apa yg diungkapkan sebelumnya. Jadi jawabannya A. Lagi2 tentang vocabulary yg akan dibahas secara detail di artikel2 berikutnya :)

8. According to the passage, why was the use
of coke smelting advantageous?
(A) It led to advances in technology.
(B) It was less expensive than wood
smelting.
(C) It produced a stronger type of iron
than wood smelting.
(D) It stimulated the demand for wood.

Soal diatas kata kuncinya coke smelting, scan kalimat yg mengandung makna atau kata tersebut. Didapatlah kalimat "Coke smelting led to technologic innovations and was linked to the emergence of the Industrial Revolution." Tinggal tentukan saja mana jawaban yg bermakna sama dengan kalimat tersebut. Jawaban yg benar adalah A.

Sekarang silahkan bandingkan dengan jawaban yg rekan2 buat. Apakah benar semua? Salam...




Coba dijwb dulu rekan2 yaaa... thx



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